Kantian autonomy For Kan t, a person is autonomous only if his choices and actions are unaffected by factors that are external, or inessential, to himself.
References and Further Reading 1. Metaethics The term "meta" means after or beyond, and, consequently, the notion of metaethics involves a removed, or bird's eye view of the entire project of ethics.
We may define metaethics as the study of the origin and meaning of ethical concepts. When compared to normative ethics and applied ethics, the field of metaethics is the least precisely defined area of moral philosophy. It covers issues from moral semantics to moral epistemology.
Two issues, though, are prominent: Objectivism and Relativism Metaphysics is the study of the kinds of things that exist in the universe. Some things in the universe are made of physical stuff, such as rocks; and perhaps other things are nonphysical in nature, such as thoughts, spirits, and gods.
The metaphysical component of metaethics involves discovering specifically whether moral values are eternal truths that exist in a spirit-like realm, or simply human conventions. There are two general directions that discussions of this topic take, one other-worldly and one this-worldly.
Proponents of the other-worldly view typically hold that moral values are objective in the sense that they exist in a spirit-like realm beyond subjective human conventions. They also hold that they are absolute, or eternal, in that they never change, and also that they are universal insofar as they apply to all rational creatures around the world and throughout time.
The most dramatic example of this view is Platowho was inspired by the field of mathematics. Humans do not invent numbers, and humans cannot alter them.
Plato explained the eternal character of mathematics by stating that they are abstract entities that exist in a spirit-like realm. He noted that moral values also are absolute truths and thus are also abstract, spirit-like entities.
In this sense, for Plato, moral values are spiritual objects. Medieval philosophers commonly grouped all moral principles together under the heading of "eternal law" which were also frequently seen as spirit-like objects.
In either case, though, they exist in a spirit-like realm. A different other-worldly approach to the metaphysical status of morality is divine commands issuing from God's will.
Sometimes called voluntarism or divine command theorythis view was inspired by the notion of an all-powerful God who is in control of everything.
God simply wills things, and they become reality. He wills the physical world into existence, he wills human life into existence and, similarly, he wills all moral values into existence. Proponents of this view, such as medieval philosopher William of Ockhambelieve that God wills moral principles, such as "murder is wrong," and these exist in God's mind as commands.
God informs humans of these commands by implanting us with moral intuitions or revealing these commands in scripture. The second and more this-worldly approach to the metaphysical status of morality follows in the skeptical philosophical tradition, such as that articulated by Greek philosopher Sextus Empiricus, and denies the objective status of moral values.
Technically, skeptics did not reject moral values themselves, but only denied that values exist as spirit-like objects, or as divine commands in the mind of God. Moral values, they argued, are strictly human inventions, a position that has since been called moral relativism.Immanuel Kant, who was a German, was born in and died in He is considered to be a modern figure of philosophy as his viewpoint talked about the fundamental concepts of the human mind along with other important philosophical conceptions that are still recognized to this day, like.
Information Philosopher is dedicated to the new Information Philosophy, with explanations for Freedom, Values, and Knowledge. Tweet through John Stuart Mill, G. E. Moore, Bertrand Russell, (or derive) from logical analysis. In this he anticipates Immanuel Kant's Critique of Practical Reason.
- John Stuart Mill's Philosophy of Happiness Along with other noted philosophers, John Stuart Mill developed the nineteenth century philosophy known as Utilitarianism - the contention that man should judge everything in life based upon its ability to promote the greatest individual happiness.
Immanuel Kant ( - ) was a German philosopher of the Age of alphabetnyc.com is regarded as one of the most important thinkers of modern Europe, and his influence on Western thought is alphabetnyc.com was the starting point and inspiration for the German Idealism movement in the late 18th and early 19th Centuries, and more specifically for the Kantianism which grew up around him in .
Utilitarianism vs. Kant: A 6 page paper on the theories of Immanuel Kant and John Stuart Mill. The writer gives an example of an ethical problem and describes what each philosopher would choose to do.
Immanuel Kant: Biography & Contributions; Early Life. Born April 22, Köningsberg. freedom and god although objects man can never know are essential to moral philosophy; Supreme Moral Principle. Biography Contributions Critique of Judgement Critique .